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Kalimat Aktif dan Pasif

| Rabu, 16 Maret 2011 | |
Kalimat Aktif dan Pasif

Bahasa Inggris memiliki dua bentuk kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pikiran. Kedua bentuk kalimat tersebut adalah kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif.

Dalam kalimat aktif subject melakukan pekerjaan, atau melakukan suatu perbuatan. Dengan ciri khas bahwa kata kerja yang digunakan berawalan “me-“. Sedangkan di dalam kalimat pasif , subject dalam kalimat tersebut tidak melakukan pekerjaan/perbuatan, melainkan dikenai pekerjaan/perbuatan. Dengan ciri khas bahwa kata kerja yang digunakan dalam kalimat tersebut berawalan “di-“.



Kata kerja yang digunakan dalam kalimat pasif bahasa Inggris adalah:
be + Verb 3 (Past Participle)

"Be” itu sendiri dibuat sesuai dengan tense yang digunakan dalam kalimat itu dan disuikan dengan subject kalimat tersebut.

Kalimat aktif diubah menjadi kalimat pasif dengan menjadikan “object” kalimat aktif itu sebagai “Subject” kalimat pasif tersebut. Berdasarkan hal itu jelaslah bahwa hanya kalimat yang memiliki “object” yang dapat diubah menjadi pasif.
Contoh:
Yanto slapped the boy on his face.
S P O
Kalimat tersebut dapat diubah menjadi:
The boy was slapped on his face.
S P
Object pelaku kalimat pasif yang dalam bahasa inggris dinyatakan dengan kata “by …” jarang diucapkan, karena kalimat pasif cenderung untuk hanya mengemukakan aktifitas . object pelaku diucapkan/ditilis hanya bila memang diperlukan, sebagai kelengkapan arti kalimat pasif bersangkutan.
Contoh :
The queen invited us to dinner.
Kalimat ini akan menjadi:
We were invited to dinner by the queen.
Bila pada sebuah kalimat aktif terdapat dua object , maka subject kalimat pasifnya dapat dipilih dari kedua object tersebut. Namun biasanya dalam bahasa inggris object manusia yang digunakan/dipilih sebagai subject kalimat pasif.
Contoh:
Aktif : I shall give her a new pen.
Pasif : 1. She will be given a new pen.
2. A new pen will be given.
Yang nomor 1 sering digunakan karena mengandung unsur manusia.

POLA KALIMAT PASIF

1. Simple Present Tense
Aktif S + V1 + O
Pasif S + is/am/are + V3 + ….

Contoh :
A : He writes the letter carefully.
P : The letter is written carefully.
A : He writes the letters carefully.
P : The letters are written carefully.
2. Simple Past Tense
Aktif S + V2 + O
Pasif S + was/were + V3 + ….
Contoh :
A : He wrote the letter carefully.
P : The letter was written carefully.
A : He wrote the letters carefully.
P : The letters were written carefully.
3. Present Continuous Tense
Aktif S + is/am/are + V-ing + O
Pasif S + is/am/are + being + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : He is writing the letter carefully.
P : The letter is being written carefully.
A : He is writing the letters carefully.
P : The letters are being written carefully.
4. Past Continuous Tense
Aktif S + was/were + V-ing + O
Pasif S + was/were + being + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : He was writing the letter carefully.
P : The letter was being written carefully.
A : He was writing the letters carefully.
P : The letters were being written carefully.

5. Present Perfect Tense
Aktif S + has/have + V3 + O
Pasif S + has/have + been + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : He has written the letter carefully.
P : The letter has been written carefully.
A : He has written the letters carefully.
P : The letters have been written carefully.

6. Past Perfect Tense
Aktif S + had + V3 + O
Pasif S + had + been + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : He had written the letter carefully.
P : The letter had been written carefully.
A : He had written the letters carefully.
P : The letters had been written carefully.
7. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Aktif S + has/have + been + V-ing + O
Pasif S + has/have + been + being + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : He has been writing the letter carefully.
P : The letter has been being written carefully.
A : He has been writing the letters carefully.
P : The letters have been being written carefully.
8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Aktif S + had + been + V-ing + O
Pasif S + had + been + being + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : He had been writing the letter carefully.
P : The letter had been being written carefully.
A : He had been writing the letters carefully.
P : The letters had been being written carefully.
9. Simple Future Tense
Aktif S + will/shall +V1 + O
Pasif S + will/shall + be + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : I will write the letter carefully.
P : The letter will be written carefully.
A : I will write the letters carefully.
P : The letters will be written carefully.
10. Past Future Tense
Aktif S + would/should +V1 + O
Pasif S + would/should + be + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : I would write the letter carefully.
P : The letter would be written carefully.
A : I would write the letters carefully.
P : The letters would be written carefully.
11. Future Perfect Tense
Aktif S + will/shall + have + V3 + O
Pasif S + will/shall + have + been + V3 + …
Contoh :
A : We will have write the letter carefully.
P : The letter will have been written carefully.
A : We will have write the letters carefully.
P : The letters will been written carefully.
12. Tense dengan modal auxaliry verbs: will, shall, can, must, may, must, etc.
Aktif S + modal + V1 + O
Pasif S + modal + be + V3 + …
Demikian juga untuk tense yang menggunakan modals dalam bentuk “past” (would, should, could might, had to, etc, formulanya adalah sebagai berikut:
Aktif S + modal past + V1 + O
Pasif S + modal past + be + V3 + …
Daftar Pustaka:
• F.A. Soeprapto,and mariana Darwis.Engish for High School.Jawa Tengah:Jogjakarta,Publishers,2006.

• haryanto doni.ABCplus English Grammar.jawa Tengah:Jogjakarta,Publishers,2003.

• Gurudanpelajar.blogspot.com

• Englishtutorial.co.cc

• Scribd.com

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